Google Scholar

Google Scholar is a freely accessible web search engine that indexes the full text or metadata of scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. Released in beta in November 2004, the Google Scholar index includes most peer-reviewed online academic journals and books, conference papers, theses and dissertations, preprints, abstracts, technical reports, and other scholarly literature, including court opinions and patents. While Google does not publish the size of Google Scholar's database, scientometric researchers estimated it to contain roughly 389 million documents including articles, citations and patents making it the world's largest academic search engine in January 2018. Previously, the size was estimated at 160 million documents as of May 2014. Earlier statistical estimate published in PLOS ONE using a Mark and recapture method estimated approximately 80–90% coverage of all articles published in English with an estimate of 100 million. This estimate also determined how many documents were freely available on the web.

Google Scholar has been criticized for not vetting journals and including predatory journals in its index

External links

on dimanche 24 février 2019 | | A comment?

Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)

Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was an academic publishing service, founded by Eugene Garfield in Philadelphia in 1960. ISI offered bibliographic databaseservices. Its specialty was citation indexing and analysis, a field pioneered by Garfield.

ISI Highly Cited
"ISI Highly Cited" is a database of "highly cited researchers"—scientific researchers whose publications are most often cited in academic journals over the past decade, published by the Institute for Scientific Information. Inclusion in this list is taken as a measure of the esteem of these academics and is used, for example, by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. It was founded under ISI and as of 2018 continues under the same name at Clarivate.

The methodology for inclusion is to consider papers in the upper first percentile based on citation counts of all articles indexed in the Scientific Citation Databases and published in a single, fixed year. Papers in the upper first percentile with respect of their year of publication are called highly cited papers. Each paper in the data is assigned to one or more of 21 categories, based on the ISI classification of the journal in which the article was published. The Highly Cited Researchers list is compiled by selecting, in every field, those researchers with the highest number of highly cited papers in a 10-year, rolling time period. The number of highly cited researchers varies from field to field and is determined accordingly to the total number of researchers contributing to the single field.

The categories are as follows:
  • Agricultural Sciences
  • Biology & Biochemistry
  • Chemistry
  • Clinical Medicine
  • Computer Science
  • Ecology/Environment
  • Economics/Business
  • Engineering
  • Geosciences
  • Immunology
  • Materials Science
  • Mathematics
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology & Genetics
  • Neuroscience
  • Pharmacology
  • Physics
  • Plant & Animal Science
  • Psychology/Psychiatry
  • Social Sciences - General
  • Space Sciences

The publication list and biographical details supplied by the researchers are freely available online, although general access to the ISI citation database is by subscription.

Scholarly peer review

Scholarly peer review

Scholarly peer review (also known as refereeing) is the process of subjecting an author's scholarly work, research, or ideas to the scrutiny of others who are experts in the same field, before a paper describing this work is published in a journal, conference proceedings or as a book. The peer review helps the publisher (that is, the editor-in-chief, the editorial board or the program committee) decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, or rejected.
Peer review requires a community of experts in a given (and often narrowly defined) field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Impartial review, especially of work in less narrowly defined or inter-disciplinary fields, may be difficult to accomplish, and the significance (good or bad) of an idea may never be widely appreciated among its contemporaries. Peer review is generally considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scholarly journals, but it by no means prevents publication of invalid research. Traditionally, peer reviewers have been anonymous, but there is currently a significant amount of open peer review, where the comments are visible to readers, generally with the identities of the peer reviewers disclosed as well.

on samedi 23 février 2019 | | A comment?

Creative Commons license

Creative Commons (CClicense is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted"work". A CC license is used when an author wants to give other people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that he or she (that author) has created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, he or she might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of a given work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an author's work from concerns of copyright infringement as long as they abide by the conditions that are specified in the license by which the author distributes the work.
There are several types of Creative Commons licenses. The licenses differ by several combinations that condition the terms of distribution. They were initially released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001. There have also been five versions of the suite of licenses, numbered 1.0 through 4.0. As of December 2018, the 4.0 license suite is the most current.
In October 2014 the Open Knowledge Foundation approved the Creative Commons CC BY, CC BY-SA and CC0 licenses as conformant with the "Open Definition" for content and data.

Hybrid open-access journal

hybrid open-access journal is a subscription journal in which some of the articles are open access. This status typically requires the payment of a publication fee (also called an article processing charge or APC) to the publisher in order to publish an article open access, in addition to the continued payment of subscriptions to access all other content.

PLOS (Public Library of Science)

PLOS (Public Library of Science)

PLOS (for Public Library of Science) is a nonprofit open-access science, technology and medicine publisher, innovator and advocacy organization with a library of open-access journals and other scientific literature under an open-content license. It launched its first journal, PLOS Biology, in October 2003 and publishes seven journals, as of October 2015. The organization is based in San FranciscoCalifornia, and has a European editorial office in Cambridge, England. The publications are primarily funded by payments from the authors.

on vendredi 22 février 2019 | | A comment?

Article processing charge

Article processing charge

An article processing charge (APC), also known as a publication fee, is a fee which is sometimes charged to authors to make a work available open access in either an open access journal or hybrid journal. This fee is usually paid by an author's institution or research funder rather than by the author themselves. Some publishers waive the fee in cases of hardship. An article processing charge does not guarantee that the author retains copyright to the work, or that it will be made available under a Creative Commons license.
Journals use a variety of ways to generate the income required to cover publishing costs (including editorial costs, any costs of administering the peer review system), such as subsidies from institutions and subscriptions. A majority of open access journals do not charge article processing charges, but a significant and growing number of them do. They are the most common funding method for professionally published open access articles.
APC fees applied to academic research are usually expensive, effectively limiting open access circulation among the less affluent institutions, scholars, and students.
APC model of open access, among other controversies — is part of the wider and increasing global Open Access OA's ethics debate (see for example Kember, S., 2014, 'Opening Out from Open Access: Writing and Publishing in Response to Neoliberalism'; Kember, S. 2016, 'How Open is Open Access?'; Page, B. 2018, 'Angry Publishers Debate OA monographs at IPG').
Different academic publishers have widely varying levels of fees, from under $100 to over $3000.High fees are sometimes charged by traditional publishers in order to publish in a hybrid open access journal, which make an individual article in a subscription journal open access. The average APC for hybrid journals has been calculated to be almost twice as high as APCs from full open access publishers. Journals with high impact factors from major publishers tend to have the highest APCs.  Many open access publishers, such as PLOS, waive their APCs for those who cannot afford to pay them. 
Open access articles often have a surcharge compared to a closed-access APC; for example the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences regularly charges $1700 per article, with a surcharge of $1350 for open-access.  Similarly, AGU's Journal of Geophysical Research charges $1000 for closed-access and $3500 for open-access. 
Even when publishers do not charge standard fees, excess or overlength fees might still apply after a certain number of pages or publication units is exceeded; additional fees might exist for color figures,  primarily for print journals that are not online-only.
While publication charges occur upon article acceptance, article submission fees are charged prior to the start of peer review; they are not uncommon among journals in some fields, e.g., finance and economics. Page charge may refer to either publication or submission fees.

American Physical Society (APS)

The American Physical Society (APS) is the world's second largest organization of physicists. The Society publishes more than a dozen scientific journals, including the prestigious Physical Review and Physical Review Letters, and organizes more than twenty science meetings each year. APS is a member society of the American Institute of Physics.


In academic publishing, a postprint is a digital draft of a research journal article after it has been peer reviewed. A digital draft before peer review is called a preprint. Jointly, postprints and preprints are called eprints.[1]
Expressed in the CrossRef terminology,[2] any draft starting from the author's original version but prior to the accepted version is a preprint, whereas any draft from the accepted version onward, including the version of record or definitive work, is a postprint.
Since the advent of the Open Archives Initiative, preprints and postprints have been deposited in institutional repositories, which are interoperable because they are compliant with the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.
Eprints are at the heart of the open access initiative to make research freely accessible online. Eprints were first deposited or self-archived in arbitrary websites and then harvested by virtual archives such as CiteSeer (and, more recently, Google Scholar), or they were deposited in central disciplinary archives such as Arxiv or PubMed Central.

Open access

Open access (OA) refers to research outputs which are distributed online and free of cost or other barriers, possibly with the addition of a Creative Commons license to promote reuse.
Academic articles (as historically seen in paper-based academic journals) have been the main focus of the movement. Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges. Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference paperstheses, book chapters, and monographs.

Author's rights

The term is considered as a direct translation of the French term droit d’auteur (also German Urheberrecht). It was indeed first (1777) promoted in France by Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, who had close relations with Benjamin Franklin. It is generally used in relation to the copyright laws of civil law countries and in European Union law. Authors' rights are internationally protected by the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works and by other similar treaties. Concerning "work of the spirit", “Author” is used in a very wide sense, and includes composers, artists, sculptors and even architects: in general, the author is the person whose creativity led to the protected work being created, although the exact definition varies from country to country.
Authors’ rights have two distinct components: the economic rights in the work and the moral rights of the author. The economic rights are a property right which is limited in time and which may be transferred by the author to other people in the same way as any other property (although many countries require that the transfer must be in the form of a written contract). They are intended to allow the author or their holder to profit financially from his or her creation, and include the right to authorize the reproduction of the work in any form (Article 9, Berne Convention)[1]. The authors of dramatic works (plays, etc.) also have the right to authorize the public performance of their works (Article 11, Berne Convention).
The protection of the moral rights of an author is based on the view that a creative work is in some way an expression of the author’s personality: the moral rights are therefore personal to the author, and cannot be transferred to another person except by testament when the author dies.[2] The moral rights regime differs greatly between countries, but typically includes the right to be identified as the author of the work and the right to object to any distortion or mutilation of the work which would be prejudicial to his or her honor or reputation (Article 6bis, Berne Convention). In many countries, the moral rights of an author are perpetual.

Copyright policies of academic publishers

Copyright policies of academic publishers

This is a list of the different copyright policies of academic publishers. Traditionally, the author of an article was required to transfer the copyright to the journal publisher. Publishers claimed this was necessary in order to protect author's rights, and to coordinate permissions for reprints or other use. However, many authors, especially those active in the open access movement, found this unsatisfactory, and have used their influence to effect a gradual move towards a license to publish instead. Under such a system, the publisher has permission to edit, print, and distribute the article commercially, but the author(s) retain the other rights themselves.
Even if they retain the copyright to an article, most journals allow certain rights to their authors. These rights usually include the ability to reuse parts of the paper in the author's future work, and allow the author to distribute a limited number of copies. In the print format, such copies are called reprints; in the electronic format, they are called postprints. Some publishers, for example the American Physical Society, also grant the author the right to post and update the article on the author's or employer's website and on free e-print servers, to grant permission to others to use or reuse figures, and even to reprint the article as long as no fee is charged. The rise of open access journals, in which the author retains the copyright but sometimes needs to pay a publication charge, such as the Public Library of Science family of journals, is another recent response to copyright concerns.

American Institute of Physics
The American Institute of Physics requires the transfer of copyright from the authors, but allows the authors to post and update an article:
  • files prepared and/or formatted by AIP (e.g. the published PDF) on the authors webpage, as long as no fee is charged, and a copyright notice, a link and a bibliographical citation are included;
  • author-prepared files only (i.e. not the published PDF) on free-access E-print servers.

"AIP Advances" authors may make their work available according to the terms of the Creative Commons 3.0 Unported License.

American Physical Society
The American Physical Society requires the transfer of copyright from the authors to the Society. It allows the authors to:
  • Distribute preprints (author prepared files), on the authors website or on preprint servers.
  • Distribute other versions, including the final and further updates, on the authors website or on preprint servers, as long as they were prepared and formatted by the author (i.e. not the PDF prepared by APS).
  • Distribute the published version (i.e. the PDF prepared by APS), in the authors website as long as no fee is charged.
A citation and notice of the APS copyright must be included.

Nature Publishing Group
The Nature Publishing Group does not require the transfer of copyright from the authors. It allows the authors to:
  • to submit the author's version of the accepted paper (the unedited manuscript) to a funding body's archive, their institution's repositories, or their personal websites, for public release six months after publication.[4]


ClinicalKey is a medical search engine and database tool owned by medical and scientific publishing company Elsevier that offers access to the medical library published by that company.

External links

The ClinicalKey website

Current Opinion

Current Opinion is a collection of review journals on various disciplines of the life sciences published by Elsevier. Each issue of each journal, which all are published bimonthly, contains one or more themed sections edited by scientists who specialise in the field and invite authors to contribute reviews aimed at experts and non-specialists. Each journal aims to cover all the major recent advances in its topic area, and to direct readers to the most important original research.

Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2352-1546), established in 2014
Current Opinion in Biotechnology (ISSN 0958-1669), established in 1990
Current Opinion in Cell Biology (ISSN 0955-0674), established in 1989
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology (ISSN 1367-5931), established in 1997
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering (ISSN 2211-3398), established in 2011
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science (ISSN 1359-0294), established in 1996
Current Opinion in Development (ISSN 0959-437X), established in 1991
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry (ISSN 2451-9103), established in 2017
Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health (ISSN 2468-5844), established in 2018
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability (ISSN 1877-3435), established in 2009
Current Opinion in Food Science (ISSN 2214-7993) established in 2015
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development (ISSN 0959-437X), established in 1991
Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry (ISSN 2452-2236), established in 2016
Current Opinion in Immunology (ISSN 0952-7915), established in 1988
Current Opinion in Insect Science (ISSN 2214-5745)
Current Opinion in Microbiology (ISSN 1369-5274), established in 1998
Current Opinion in Neurobiology (ISSN 0959-4388), established in 1991
Current Opinion in Pharmacology (ISSN 1471-4892), established in 2001
Current Opinion in Physiology (ISSN 2468-8673), established in 2018
Current Opinion in Plant Biology (ISSN 1369-5266), established in 1998
Current Opinion in Psychology (ISSN 2352-250X), established in 2015
Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science (ISSN 1359-0286), established in 1996
Current Opinion in Structural Biology (ISSN 0959-440X), established in 1991
Current Opinion in Systems Biology (ISSN 2452-3100)
Current Opinion in Toxicology (ISSN 2468-2020), established in 2016

Current Opinion in Virology (ISSN 1879-6257), established in 2011



Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology. They are currently part of Elsevier's Cell Press group of journals.
The Trends series was founded in 1976 with Trends in Biochemical Sciences (TIBS), rapidly followed by Trends in Neurosciences(TINS), Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (TIPS) and Immunology Today.
Immunology TodayParasitology Today and Molecular Medicine Today changed their names to Trends in... in 2001. Drug Discovery Today was spun off as an independent brand.
Originally published in Cambridge, UK, the Trends Editorial Office moved to London during the mid-1990s, after Elsevier acquired Pergamon Press. As of 2007, they are published under the Cell Press imprint and as of 2010, they operate out of an editorial office in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. The Trends Publisher is Paige Shaklee.



ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research. It hosts over 12 million pieces of content from 3,500 academic journals and 34,000 e-books. The journals are grouped into four main sections: Physical Sciences and EngineeringLife SciencesHealth Sciences, and Social Sciences and Humanities. Article abstracts are freely available, but access to their full texts (in PDF and, for newer publications, also HTML) generally requires a subscription or pay-per-view purchase.

Cell (journal)

Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.[1]Areas covered include molecular biologycell biologysystems biologystem cellsdevelopmental biologygenetics and genomicsproteomics, cancer research, immunologyneurosciencestructural biologymicrobiologyvirologyphysiologybiophysics, and computational biology. The journal was established in 1974 by Benjamin Lewin[2] and is published twice monthly by Cell Press, an imprint of Elsevier.

External links

Official website

The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal. It is among the world's oldest, most prestigious, and best known general medical journals.[1]
The journal was founded in 1823 by Thomas Wakley, an English surgeon who named it after the surgical instrument called a lancet, as well as after the architectural term "lancet arch",[2] a window with a sharp pointed arch, to indicate the "light of wisdom" or "to let in light".
The journal publishes original research articles, review articles ("seminars" and "reviews"), editorials, book reviews, correspondence, as well as news features and case reports. The Lancet has been owned by Elsevier since 1991. Since 1995, the editor-in-chief is Richard Horton.[3] The journal has editorial offices in London, New York, and Beijing.

Specialty journals
The Lancet also publishes several specialty journals: 
The Lancet Neurology (neurology), 
The Lancet Oncology (oncology), 
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (infectious diseases), 
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (respiratory medicine), 
The Lancet Psychiatry (psychiatry), 
The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology (endocrinology), 
The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology (Gastroenterology) all of which publish original research and reviews. In 2013, 
The Lancet Global Health (global health) became the group's first fully open access journal. In 2014, 
The Lancet Haematology (haematology) 
The Lancet HIV (infectious diseases) were launched, both as online only research titles. In 2017, 
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health (paediatrics) will launch.

RELX Group

RELX Group (pronounced "Rel-ex") is a British multinational information and analytics company headquartered in London. It operates in four market segments: scientific, technical and medical; risk and business analytics; legal; and exhibitions.
RELX PLC is a publicly-listed holding company with shares traded on the London Stock ExchangeAmsterdam Stock Exchangeand New York Stock Exchange using the following ticker symbols: London: REL, Amsterdam: REN, New York: RELX. The company is one of the constituents of the FTSE 100 IndexFinancial Times Global 500 and Euronext 100 Index.
The company operates in 40 countries and serves customers in over 180 nations.[1] About 55 per cent of the company’s revenues are generated from the US, with 23 per cent from Europe and 22 per cent from the rest of the world.[1]

on jeudi 21 février 2019 | | A comment?

Academic publishing

Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship. Most academic work is published in academic journal article, book or thesis form. The part of academic written output that is not formally published but merely printed up or posted on the Internet is often called "grey literature". Most scientific and scholarly journals, and many academic and scholarly books, though not all, are based on some form of peer review or editorial refereeing to qualify texts for publication. Peer review quality and selectivity standards vary greatly from journal to journal, publisher to publisher, and field to field.
Most established academic disciplines have their own journals and other outlets for publication, although many academic journals are somewhat interdisciplinary, and publish work from several distinct fields or subfields. There is also a tendency for existing journals to divide into specialized sections as the field itself becomes more specialized. Along with the variation in review and publication procedures, the kinds of publications that are accepted as contributions to knowledge or research differ greatly among fields and subfields.
Academic publishing is undergoing major changes, as it makes the transition from the print to the electronic format. Business models are different in the electronic environment. Since the early 1990s, licensing of electronic resources, particularly journals, has been very common. Currently, an important trend, particularly with respect to journals in the sciences, is open access via the Internet. In open access publishing, a journal article is made available free for all on the web by the publisher at the time of publication. Open-access journals are often funded by the author paying hundreds or thousands of dollars in publication fees, thereby shifting the costs from the reader to the researcher or their funder, but some open-access journals are funded directly. The Internet has facilitated open access self-archiving, in which authors themselves make a copy of their published articles available free for all on the web.[1][2] Some important results[3] in mathematics have been published only on arXiv.[4][5]

Journal ranking

Journal ranking is widely used in academic circles in the evaluation of an academic journal's impact and quality. Journal rankings are intended to reflect the place of a journal within its field, the relative difficulty of being published in that journal, and the prestige associated with it. They have been introduced as official research evaluation tools in several countries.

Impact factor

The impact factor (IF) or journal impact factor (JIF) of an academic journal is a measure reflecting the yearly average number of citations to recent articles published in that journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field; journals with higher impact factors are often deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated yearly starting from 1975 for journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports.


The h-index is an author-level metric that attempts to measure both the productivity and citation impact of the publications of a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a scholarly journal[1] as well as a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country.[2] The index was suggested in 2005 by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist at UC San Diego, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality[3] and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number.